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The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution

The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution

Futurcrop - 21-08-2018

It is constantly repeated that at present the problem of hunger in the world is not a problem of food production, but of distribution of the calories produced. And this validates a agricultural production system that predominates since the 50s, that premium at any cost the productivity per hectare. And it is true that globally agricultural production has increased the yield per acreage.   This model of intensive agricultural production was a revolution in the 50s and was the result, among others, of the work of a distinguished agronomist, geneticist and North American phytopathologist named Norman Ernest Borlaug. The different techniques that promoted the increase in agricultural productivity was called The Green Revolution, also Third Agricultural Revolution, and was based mainly on the use of varieties of high-yielding seeds, cultivated in large areas (monoculture), and the use of large amounts of fertilizers, phytoregulators and pesticides. It was all about adapting, through chemical and mechanical technology, Nature to the human needs of food production. It was the beginning of the process of industrialization in agricultural production. Borlaug is considered by many the father of modern agriculture, and in 1970 received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in the eradication of hunger and malnutrition in developed countries. Also this type of agriculture made possible the internationalization of agricultural marketing.   With funding from the Rockefeller Found...
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The 10 most common errors in pest control

The 10 most common errors in pest control

Futurcrop - 30-07-2018

Intensive production agriculture has favoured pest to become on of the major problems of agriculture   The intensive production agriculture has meant the development of isolated environments that benefit the development of pests, an easy source of food. And the repeated and indiscriminate use of pesticides has modified a natural environment in which pests were controlled by their predators. In addition, markets have forced the selection of certain varieties of crops by farmers, plant breeders, and hybrid producers, so that many of the cultivated varieties have been losing part of the natural defense mechanisms acquired over millions of years in that slow co-evolution process.   Erroneous or late identification of the pest. Difficulty in the Identification of larval stages of pests Generally, nymphs and larvae are more difficult to identify than adults, but if the pest is not correctly identified, it will be very difficult to apply an effective control strategy. The identification of pests for the damage they cause The easiest way to identify a pest is when damage to the plant is done, but that time is usually late to perform a treatment, and the population dynamics of the pest could  not be controlled. Transboundary pests The trade globalization of plants and crops is causing pests to move into new environments, in which they are not easily identifiable and lack their natural predators.   Late treatments due to unknowing the cycle...
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Insects Biological Cycle for pest control

Insects Biological Cycle for pest control

Futurcrop - 09-07-2018

Could be distinguished two groups in the development cycle of pests, depending on their biological stages APHIDS, WHITE FLY, CICADELIDAE, ETC   Those pests go through three stages in their biological cycle: eggs nymphs Adults In all the stages of development of the insect, they resemble each other, develop in the same place on the plant and feed on the same parts of it. Using chemical treatments, nymphs and adults are usually eliminated, but usually the plague survives in the egg stage. Therefore, reinfestation depends on the survival of the eggs and the colonization of new populations.   To control the pest should be enough with 2 conventional treatments, 2 applications of agrochemicals, but that is not the usual because they are pests that can be fed from a large number of plants (which are also necessary to control). It is essential to have a tool that allows us to identify the pest, even in the egg phase, and have information that allows us to predict its future development to carry out appropriate preventive actions. FRUIT FLY, FALL ARMYWORM, COLEOPTERA LARVAE   Those are insects whose biological cycle passes through 4 stages: egg larva pupa adult This type of pests is characterized because there is a great morphological difference in its different phases of development, they inhabit in different places of the plant in each phase, and feed differently on the plant. That differenciation of behaviour on its different...
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When a pest reduces the rentability of maize production

When a pest reduces the rentability of maize production

Futurcrop - 03-07-2018

Every year the same situation is repeated: uncontrolled infestations of the armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) attacking the maize crops of South America and Central America, Africa, India, etc., in large farming areas and causing huge losses to producers.The attacks of the armyworm are endemic in those areas where the climate is favorable for its development: temperatures above 25ºC and relative humidity less than 60%. The lack of rains also favor their rapid development. And the treatments against agricultural pests, preventive or fixed by calendar dates, have very little effectiveness and favor the resistance of pests to pesticides.   LOSS OF CROPS YIELDSIf we consider 5 mt/ha as an average yield in mechanized maize, the losses that can be caused by the fall armyworm can reach the 40%, ie losses of approximately USD416 per hectare, at an average price of 2018. In tropical and subtropical regions, the damages are regularly greater than 60%. In large areas, such as the ones we are talking about, it involves losses of hundreds of billions of $USD.   MISUSE OF PESTICIDESIf under normal conditions, 2 or 3 treatments can be made per season, with a cost of $ USD 109 / MT, an attack of the plague can increase them up to 5 or 7, increasing its cost to $ USD 211 / MT. In fact, in some cases, up to 10 applications can be needed to control the pest. And the cost of the treatment can exceed the sale price of the harvest itself.Crops losses and the increase in the use o...
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Identification of lepidopteran larvae of agricultural importance

Identification of lepidopteran larvae of agricultural importance

Futurcrop - 26-06-2018

The identification of immature stages of Lepidoptera is possible, but the literature on this is rather scarce. Through FuturCrop's automated and continuous calculation of the phases of the biological cycle of the pests, the genus and species of the pests can be determined, without the need to finish the complete biological cycle, even in the case of pests that have a prolonged biological cycle (larval development can last between weeks and years, depending on the case). The agricultural pest control software sends notices to the user when there are modifications in the phases of the development of the pests and, in this way, through the software it is possible to control the population development, to determine the optimal moment and the opportune way of treatment for your control. Save costs and optimize production.   Lepidoptera are the taxonomic order of insects with more species considered of economic importance due to their pest effect in agriculture. Although the order contains more than 150,000 described species, and it is estimated that they can reach 255,000, there are thirteen superfamilies with species that constitute pests. The damage that the pests of the order Lepidoptera cause to the crops happens fundamentally during its larval phase.   Adults of the order Lepidoptera are, with some exceptions, easy to identify. These are insects with two pairs of wings covered by flat scales, which also cover a good part of the body. But adult lepidoptera do not...
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Agricultural pest control in their larval stages

Agricultural pest control in their larval stages

Futurcrop - 29-05-2018

The identification of the pest species that attacks our crops, and the recognition of each state of biological development, is one of the fundamental aspects for and adequate  control. Generally 85% of the pests that attack crops belong to orders that develop as larvae. And it is the immature states that cause the most damage to crops. The pupa, the intermediate state between the larva and the adult, does not feed and its mobility is almost nil. In fact, 60% of damage cause by pests ins done during  their larval stage. That is so because it is the state of growth and most active feeding, it is the phase in which insects consume more food, and usually the phase that lasts the longest. The food consumed by the larva is much higher in the last instars than in the first, because the larva fully developed is larger and mobile. Adults of fruit flies (eg, Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae) generally do not cause damage, but their larvae cause serious damage to many cultivated fruits.   Therefore, the identification and control of pest larvae should be carried out in the first instars, in its early stages, because less insecticide is required to kill them, to avoid further damage, and to control the population dynamics,   Therefore, a frequent monitoring of the crops is required. The problem is that the identification of the pest in immature stages is not always accurate.   Using FuturCrop, you will receive warning messages, so, when monitoring cr...
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Taxonomy of pests

Taxonomy of pests

Futurcrop - 21-05-2018

The Swedish Carolus Linnaeus is considered the creator of the classification of living beings or taxonomy. In his great work Systema naturae, which, with 13 editions, represented 35 years of work, in the 18th century developed a binomial nomenclature system that is still used today, based on the use of a first term, written in capital letters, identifies the Genus, and a second term corresponding to the specific name of the Species, written in lowercase letters. From the most specific to the generic, in a nested hierarchy, grouped species into Genus, Family, Order, Class, Philum, Kingdom and Domain (Later on, the need to detail the classification forced to establish intermediate categories.   According to the taxonomic classification, insects belong to the Arthropoda Philum (such as arachnids and crustaceans), and to the Insecta Class. According to the classification of Linnaeus, the Insecta Class is divided into Orders, depending of certain morphological features: wing structure, buccal parts, metamorphosis or other characteristics, from which the given name to each order derives.   Insects comprise the most diverse group of animals on Earth with approximately one million species described. And it is estimated that there are between 6 and 10 million species not yet described or classified. For example, there are approximately 5000 species of Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies), 20,000 of Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets), 120,000 of Lepidoptera (butterflies an...
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How to reduce the use of chemical insecticides in the control of pests

How to reduce the use of chemical insecticides in the control of pests

Futurcrop - 07-05-2018

When talking about treatments against pests and plant diseases, best practices rules  that the constant sampling of the farm, the determination of the density of the pest or the presence of the disease are fundamental procedures, and that it is the threshold of action that determines the moment of phytosanitary treatments. But reality does not always follow that procedure. See for example the March recommendations of a pest and disease surveillance station of the Spanish Public Administration. For pears and apples, they recommend a preventive application of a cupric fungicide, for stone fruit trees they recommend the application of a cupric fungicide to prevent the early appearance of diseases such as monilinia.  To prevent Phytophthora spp in citrus, they recomend to apply systemic fungicides. And the warning continues with recommendations for cupric fungicides to reduce the inoculum of diseases in other crops.   Preventive treatments, as well as repeated treatments after their inefficiency, are common in agriculture. Only 30% of chemical treatments have an effect on pests, so conventional culture requires several periodic repetitions. And this practice not only increases costs, but also causes serious environmental pollution and excessive chemical residues in food (never above the maximum residue limit for each active substance, of course). That is way agriculture needs a software application that controls pests and justifies any chemical treatment, in orde...
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Optimized treatment of aphids using FuturCrop

Optimized treatment of aphids using FuturCrop

Futurcrop - 04-07-2017

Aphids are one of the most common pests that afect crops, with the greatest economic impact, and which act most quickly. The 4,000 identified specied of aphids  cause direct damage to the aerial parts of the plant, but they can also be vectors of phytopathogenic viruses. They attack garden, orchard and cereals. Some 500 species of aphids are harmful to crops and gardens. And more than 200 species are capable of transmitting viruses.   FuturCrop is a software that controls the development conditions for the following species: Aphis fabae, Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum avenae, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Diuraphis noxia.   FuturCrop is decisive for the early detection of the pest, and its effective treatment. As diagnosing the problem early can help minimize the consequences, the software automatically sends infestation risk alarms.   Aphids feed on the sap of plants, which have a lot of sugar and few proteins. Therefore, aphids must consume a lot of sap to satisfy their protein needs. The excess of sugar makes them excrete large quantities of a kind of molasses that  attracts ants, which protect, transport and care for aphids.   The survival strategies that aphids have developed make its control difficult: During autumn females and winged males mate and lay eggs that hibernate until the following spring. From these eggs females are born that reproduce by parthenogenesis (basically, clones of adults). A female can carry inside it...
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Effective control of the red spider mite

Effective control of the red spider mite

Futurcrop - 23-02-2017

The red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an acari that can affect almost any plant. It feeds on tissue and sap. And, as many producers know, it is capable of ending a crop in a very short time, for several reasons: It has a short life cycle, with 5 states High reproductive rate. The normal proportion of females and males in a standard population is 3: 1. Reproduction is usually sexual, but parthenogenetic reproduction can also occur. It is a mite is very polyphagous, which has a high detoxification capacity and also a high adaptation. FuturCrop is a software with which you can receive notices of risk infestation and biological development of the red spider mite and other 179 pests that affects to crops. It will notify you of the moment in which it is convenient to carry out monitoring, because the program has calculated that the probability of development of the pest is high. The software will help you to make the application of the treatment knowing the state of development of the population of the red spider mite. In this way you can make the choice of the most appropriate product: ovicides, larvicides, adulticides. With FuturCrop you can plan the application at the moment of greater proportion of sensitive forms to the treatment. The most used method for its control is the use of agrochemicals. However, its excessive and indiscriminate use has caused current populations with resistance to more than 92 acaricide-active substances. For this reason, treatments with aca...
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