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Potential effects of climate change of insect pest dynamics

Potential effects of climate change of insect pest dynamics

Futurcrop - 12-07-2019

            POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON INSECT PEST DYNAMICS Sikha Deka1*, Sharmistha Barthakur1 and Renu Pandey2   1National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110012 2Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012   INTRODUCTION Climate change is the most important, and the most complex, global environmental issue to-date.  Effects of green house gases and climatic changes are already evident from the rising climatic temperature, recurrent droughts, erratic rains, flooding and submergence etc. Global climate is expected to  warm 1.4 to 5.8oC over the century with the maximum increase at Northern Latitude (Meehl, 2007). Such changes may have serious impacts on global crop productivity and agricultural production leading to famine and starvation.  A recent study predicts that crop harvest will decline by more than 30% in Indian subcontinent by 2050 (Rao, 1999).   Climatic factors like temperature and  precipitation in particular, have a very strong influence on the development, reproduction and survival of insect  pests and pathogens. Researchers found that the numbers of leaf eating insects are likely to surge as a result of rising levels of  CO2, at a time when crop production will have to be boosted to feed an extra three billion people living at the end of 21st century  (Connor, 2008). It is predicted that some...
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How the application of insecticides has created problems where there were not

How the application of insecticides has created problems where there were not

Futurcrop - 16-05-2019

Several factors (monoculture, climate change, etc.), have influenced the uncontrolled development of pest populations in crops, but mainly the inadequate use of chemical insecticides has affected the natural balance between pests and their predators and parasitoids. General spectrum insecticides indiscriminately kill pests and their predators, both kill the pests that cause damage to crops and their natural enemies.   Red spiders mites (Tetranychus urticae), now a widespread pest in crops around the world, were never a serious pest in agriculture. The populations of the red spider mites were regulated by their natural predators, mainly by the predatory mites of the phytoseid family (although also other families such as some dipterans and coleoptera). But it has been human intervention that has broken that natural balance, through the indiscriminate and systematic use of synthetic organic pesticides since the second half of the 20th century. Twenty years later, populations of mites of the family Tetranychidae, such as the spider mite, are pests that can be very destructive in the agricultural sector.   The obscure mealybug (Pseudococcus viburni) usually do not constitute great damage in crops due to the control exercised over their population by their natural enemies, parasitoids and predators (the families of chrysopids, hemeropods, diptera and coccinellids). However, when the natural enemies of the insect are destroyed by the application of insecticides, the mealyb...
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Real time pest and vegetable diseases prediction models

Real time pest and vegetable diseases prediction models

Futurcrop - 16-04-2019

Currently, pest management techniques have changed drastically due to the following circumstances: Global Warming, which influence in  a greater presence of pests throughout the year, in shorter biological cycles, and in the displacement of pests to areas where the climate previously prevented their development. Transnational trade transports pests to new areas, now with temperatures where they can develop, and where they have no natural enemies to control them. These transboundary pests cause serious damage to crops because in general they are not properly identified and there is no habitual knowledge about their management and control. The current and predominant agricultural production system, that uses chemical insecticides repeatedly, usually causes the development of pest resistance to insecticides. Chemical treatments are usually carried out without considering the stage of development of the pest, nor the conditions of the crop and in many cases without  a real risk. Chemical treatments of a preventive nature are simply carried out, and according to calendar dates. Unnecessary applications imply unnecessary contamination, to the environment and to the crops themselves. Current legislation tends to demand the sustainable use of phytosanitary products, by reducing their risks and their effects on human health and the environment. The same legislation encourages the use of integrated pest management techniques, and alternative approaches or techniques to chemi...
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How to stimulate biodiversity and the biological control of pests

How to stimulate biodiversity and the biological control of pests

Futurcrop - 18-02-2019

The effect of chemical insecticides against pests, and also against  their natural predators, and the simplification of the agricultural landscape, indiscriminately eliminating weeds, the native flora and shrub as a reservoir of useful fauna, are some of the main causes of the problem of the current proliferation of pests in the Agriculture. Agriculture considered as an industrial process of food production, which increases production at the lowest cost and accelerates processes through chemical products, has caused serious environmental problems for years. Among other things, this production system favors the cleaning of fields of bushes, hedges, trees and shrubs. But this practice supposes the reduction of biodiversity in the agricultural landscapes and the elimination of the proper habitats of the native species of predators and parasites of plagues, and causes therefore a greater vulnerability of the crops to pests and diseases.   This intensification in agricultural production creates a high pressure of pests and diseases on crops, which is usually controlled with chemicals insecticides. However, numerous investigations show that the indiscriminate use of agricultural insecticides causes damage to the environment, to the farmer´s health, and to the consumer himself through chemical residues in the crops. Knowing the damages that these products can cause, the usual practice of the systematic use of phytosanitary products in agriculture is justified...
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Climatic Change and pest prevention technologies

Climatic Change and pest prevention technologies

Futurcrop - 26-11-2018

The increase of temperatures due to climate change, can modificate the biological cycle of pests, varying the usual seasons of attacks and favoring short reproductive cycles and therefore multiple generations. This new situation requires agricultural producers to use technologies that automatically control the biological development of pest in orther to have greater control over their crops. Systems such as FuturCrop acquire timely relevance and become an important tool in integrated pest management. But how the system works?   Temperature controls the rate of development of many organisms. Plants, insects or nematodes, require a certain amount of heat to change their bilogical stage. Pattern recognition systems can identify, based on climatic conditions, the development life cycle of insects and predict the next point in their life cycle. Each species has its own pattern of development and each stage of development differs for each organism. When determining the point of the following life cycle, it allows us to decide, thus obtaining the moment of greatest vulnerability of the pest obtaining the maximum effectiveness of our pest management actions.   Pest development pattern recognition systems are based on mathematical algorithms developed over the years at Research Institues and Universities. The software´s  hability for interpreting and continuously learning from the obtained results, adapting them to the specific climatological variables of each zon...
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The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution

The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution

Futurcrop - 21-08-2018

It is constantly repeated that at present the problem of hunger in the world is not a problem of food production, but of distribution of the calories produced. And this validates a agricultural production system that predominates since the 50s, that premium at any cost the productivity per hectare. And it is true that globally agricultural production has increased the yield per acreage.   This model of intensive agricultural production was a revolution in the 50s and was the result, among others, of the work of a distinguished agronomist, geneticist and North American phytopathologist named Norman Ernest Borlaug. The different techniques that promoted the increase in agricultural productivity was called The Green Revolution, also Third Agricultural Revolution, and was based mainly on the use of varieties of high-yielding seeds, cultivated in large areas (monoculture), and the use of large amounts of fertilizers, phytoregulators and pesticides. It was all about adapting, through chemical and mechanical technology, Nature to the human needs of food production. It was the beginning of the process of industrialization in agricultural production. Borlaug is considered by many the father of modern agriculture, and in 1970 received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in the eradication of hunger and malnutrition in developed countries. Also this type of agriculture made possible the internationalization of agricultural marketing.   With funding from the Rockefeller Found...
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The 10 most common errors in pest control

The 10 most common errors in pest control

Futurcrop - 30-07-2018

Intensive production agriculture has favoured pest to become on of the major problems of agriculture   The intensive production agriculture has meant the development of isolated environments that benefit the development of pests, an easy source of food. And the repeated and indiscriminate use of pesticides has modified a natural environment in which pests were controlled by their predators. In addition, markets have forced the selection of certain varieties of crops by farmers, plant breeders, and hybrid producers, so that many of the cultivated varieties have been losing part of the natural defense mechanisms acquired over millions of years in that slow co-evolution process.   Erroneous or late identification of the pest. Difficulty in the Identification of larval stages of pests Generally, nymphs and larvae are more difficult to identify than adults, but if the pest is not correctly identified, it will be very difficult to apply an effective control strategy. The identification of pests for the damage they cause The easiest way to identify a pest is when damage to the plant is done, but that time is usually late to perform a treatment, and the population dynamics of the pest could  not be controlled. Transboundary pests The trade globalization of plants and crops is causing pests to move into new environments, in which they are not easily identifiable and lack their natural predators.   Late treatments due to unknowing the cycle...
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Insects Biological Cycle for pest control

Insects Biological Cycle for pest control

Futurcrop - 09-07-2018

Could be distinguished two groups in the development cycle of pests, depending on their biological stages APHIDS, WHITE FLY, CICADELIDAE, ETC   Those pests go through three stages in their biological cycle: eggs nymphs Adults In all the stages of development of the insect, they resemble each other, develop in the same place on the plant and feed on the same parts of it. Using chemical treatments, nymphs and adults are usually eliminated, but usually the plague survives in the egg stage. Therefore, reinfestation depends on the survival of the eggs and the colonization of new populations.   To control the pest should be enough with 2 conventional treatments, 2 applications of agrochemicals, but that is not the usual because they are pests that can be fed from a large number of plants (which are also necessary to control). It is essential to have a tool that allows us to identify the pest, even in the egg phase, and have information that allows us to predict its future development to carry out appropriate preventive actions. FRUIT FLY, FALL ARMYWORM, COLEOPTERA LARVAE   Those are insects whose biological cycle passes through 4 stages: egg larva pupa adult This type of pests is characterized because there is a great morphological difference in its different phases of development, they inhabit in different places of the plant in each phase, and feed differently on the plant. That differenciation of behaviour on its different...
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When a pest reduces the rentability of maize production

When a pest reduces the rentability of maize production

Futurcrop - 03-07-2018

Every year the same situation is repeated: uncontrolled infestations of the armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) attacking the maize crops of South America and Central America, Africa, India, etc., in large farming areas and causing huge losses to producers.The attacks of the armyworm are endemic in those areas where the climate is favorable for its development: temperatures above 25ºC and relative humidity less than 60%. The lack of rains also favor their rapid development. And the treatments against agricultural pests, preventive or fixed by calendar dates, have very little effectiveness and favor the resistance of pests to pesticides.   LOSS OF CROPS YIELDSIf we consider 5 mt/ha as an average yield in mechanized maize, the losses that can be caused by the fall armyworm can reach the 40%, ie losses of approximately USD416 per hectare, at an average price of 2018. In tropical and subtropical regions, the damages are regularly greater than 60%. In large areas, such as the ones we are talking about, it involves losses of hundreds of billions of $USD.   MISUSE OF PESTICIDESIf under normal conditions, 2 or 3 treatments can be made per season, with a cost of $ USD 109 / MT, an attack of the plague can increase them up to 5 or 7, increasing its cost to $ USD 211 / MT. In fact, in some cases, up to 10 applications can be needed to control the pest. And the cost of the treatment can exceed the sale price of the harvest itself.Crops losses and the increase in the use o...
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Identification of lepidopteran larvae of agricultural importance

Identification of lepidopteran larvae of agricultural importance

Futurcrop - 26-06-2018

The identification of immature stages of Lepidoptera is possible, but the literature on this is rather scarce. Through FuturCrop's automated and continuous calculation of the phases of the biological cycle of the pests, the genus and species of the pests can be determined, without the need to finish the complete biological cycle, even in the case of pests that have a prolonged biological cycle (larval development can last between weeks and years, depending on the case). The agricultural pest control software sends notices to the user when there are modifications in the phases of the development of the pests and, in this way, through the software it is possible to control the population development, to determine the optimal moment and the opportune way of treatment for your control. Save costs and optimize production.   Lepidoptera are the taxonomic order of insects with more species considered of economic importance due to their pest effect in agriculture. Although the order contains more than 150,000 described species, and it is estimated that they can reach 255,000, there are thirteen superfamilies with species that constitute pests. The damage that the pests of the order Lepidoptera cause to the crops happens fundamentally during its larval phase.   Adults of the order Lepidoptera are, with some exceptions, easy to identify. These are insects with two pairs of wings covered by flat scales, which also cover a good part of the body. But adult lepidoptera do not...
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